Sexo, sexualidad y bioética (Spanish Edition)


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Nine underwent a hysterectomy, accompanied by an oophorectomy, except in one case. The mean age at the time of the operation was Four patients were in their twenties, two in their thirties, two in their forties and one in her fifties. In five cases only mastectomy was performed. Mastectomy and hysterectomy were performed in five cases.

In another four cases, hysterectomy without mastectomy was performed. Mercader 15 found that the ages of the applicants for a legal procedure in France ranged between 21 and 66; the mean age for women was less than 35 the time at which they requested the authorisation to have surgery , and the mean age for males was over 38 Table 4.

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Other authors 16 found that the age of the first medical consultation was In the Clinic, markedly higher percentages of male transsexuals who have undergone surgery were collected than in Benjamin's series. However, it must be remembered that this author closed his clinical study in , and that the Clinic's study closed more recently, in an age of more advanced surgical techniques and no secrecy surrounding surgery, performing surgery on cases with legal applications, whose requirements were up to forthcoming dates, to obtain a positive outcome, having previously undergone surgery Table 5.

However, regarding the cases of transsexual females, the case study is similar; this could be interpreted as explained by less social pressure on women who feel that they are of the opposite sex, which has already been mentioned, which is why their surgical percentage is significantly lower than in males Table 6. Regarding the ages at the time of undergoing surgery, both the Clinic's series and Benjamin's series present a greater number of cases between the ages of 20 and 40, with a sharper decline in the Clinic from the age of 40 to At these ages, the individual may have the financial means to undergo surgery, and their state of health is good enough to tolerate possible repeat operations.

The range of ages of the Clinic's series is similar to that of Benjamin's series, and somewhat less broad than Mercader's series. In females, legal proceedings are sought at similar ages in all three series, and at a slightly younger age in France than for males in that study, which is contrary to our findings. The ages of gender reassignment are similar in both males and females, comparing our study with that of Benjamin, with the age being slightly higher in the group of transsexual females.

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We cannot compare our study with the age at the time of the first medical consultation, which is merely for care or informative purposes. In the transsexual males who underwent surgery, the Clinic's series is comparable to that of Benjamin in terms of percentage and type of reassignment surgery. Regarding transsexual females, in the series which we studied in the Clinic, all cases underwent a procedure, with phalloplasty being particularly predominant; however, in the series, and perhaps because the techniques with regard to the male organ were not so refined, patients exclusively underwent vaginectomies and mastectomies..

This study has limitations, such as the number of cases, the fact that a retrospective assessment was carried out, and that the series published are not homogeneous.. At the Forensic Medical Clinic of Madrid and in the period covered by the study, expert reports were issued for 29 male transsexuals and 23 female transsexuals. The ratio of male to female transsexuals is 1. In two cases one per gender, 3.

No psychotic abnormalities were found.

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Fourteen cases In two cases it developed during adolescence 6. The vast majority of cases who had sexual relationships did so from the heterosexual point of view. In some cases, there was a homosexual relationship at the start..


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The age of initiation of legal proceedings was Gender reassignment surgery was carried out around the time of the legal application for gender reassignment. Classical surgical techniques were used in both directions: vaginoplasty and phalloplasty, although mastectomy and vaginectomy were performed with greater frequency, with many more transsexual males undergoing surgery than females..

Notwithstanding their different characteristics, these results are comparable with previous studies.. In the rare cases in which the forensic doctor may be required to issue a report, the following should be specified: a Presence of gender dysphoria.. Absence of lack of conformity with the sexual role, transvestism disorder, body dysmorphic disorder and psychotic disorder.. From a medical perspective, it has gone from a biologistic, deterministic, sexually dichotomous and heterosexist discourse up to to another that incorporates the paradigm of sexual diversity, 20 with the development of a more inclusive social and legal framework with gender fluidity.

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.. Rev Esp Med Legal. ISSN: Previous article Next article. Issue 4. Pages October - December A study of transsexuality from Medical Forensic Clinic in Madrid. Download PDF. Corresponding author. This item has received. Article information. Table 1. Table 2. Table 4. Show more Show less. Introduction The objective of this work is to compare the cases of transsexuality studied in the Forensic Medical Clinic of Madrid with those published in other series.

Material and methods A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, and observational study was carried out by collecting a series of data from the reports issued by forensic doctors attached to the Forensic Medical Clinic of Madrid, from 11 January to 4 May Results A total of 52 reports were obtained in relation to transsexuality, of which 29 were from male to female Conclusions The study emphasises the high incidence of absence of psycho-pathological problems observed in approximately one-third of the cases , the precociousness in the appearance of the transsexual feeling and the proximity between the surgery and the application for registration, conditioned by the current legal requirements.

The results obtained in the present study are compared with other series, taking into account the difference in the procedures used. Forensic sexology. Los resultados obtenidos en nuestro estudio son comparables con otras series, teniendo en cuenta la diferencia de procedimientos empleados.

Palabras clave:. The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision ICD 2 defines three different gender identity disorders: gender identity disorder of childhood, dual-role transvestism and transsexualism, which the DSM-IV-TR 3 lists within the same category, called gender identity disorder. Psychological tests may reveal an identification or behaviour patterns of the other sex. Existence of discordance between the morphological sex or physiological gender initially registered and the gender identity felt by the applicant or psychosocial gender, as well as the stability or persistence of this discordance.

Absence of personality disorders that could influence the existence of this discordance. We can therefore see that, with the legislative change, the role of the forensic doctor will be merely occasional, surgery unnecessary, and the possibility of increasing the clinic's file unlikely. Objectives The objectives proposed in this study are for both male and female transsexuality: 1.

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To determine the number of transsexuals in both directions studied at the Forensic Medical Clinic of Madrid, the relationship of transsexuality by gender and the incidence in the population. To determine the existence of psychopathological processes and of possible consumption of substances of abuse in these subjects. To determine the time of onset of the transsexual feeling. To assess the type of sexual relationships maintained. To determine the age of initiation of legal proceedings, of the performance of gender reassignment surgery and the type of procedure.

To compare these results with other studies and publications carried out on the same topic. Material and methods Material The field in which the study was conducted is made up of reports issued by forensic doctors affiliated to the Forensic Medical Clinic of Madrid, from 11 January to 4 May , having selected all the reports issued on transsexuality, after obtaining authorisation from His Lordship, Magistrate-Senior Judge of the Courts of Madrid, with the study proposal and the commitment to secrecy appearing in the application.

Methods The sheet to fill in for the study lists: name, age, date of application, profession, age of onset of the feeling, psychopathological study, drug use, relationships, hormone treatment and surgical treatment. Case study, ratio and incidence of transsexuality in both directions. Percentage of reactive depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Table 3. Range and ages of initiation of legal proceedings, first consultation and surgical reassignment.

Male transsexuals.

expressionengine.dev3.develag.com/820.php Testing the alleged superiority of the indulgent parenting style among Spanish adolescents. Background: While international studies have reported the superiority of the authoritative style This study aims to discern whether the differences are cultural or methodological.


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Method: adolescents from high schools in Madrid and Valencia Spain answered a questionnaire that included two parenting style instruments SOC and PSI , together with a self-esteem scale AF5 and a question on academic performance. Results: Concordance between the two instruments assessing parenting styles was poor.

Sexo, sexualidad y bioética (Spanish Edition)
Sexo, sexualidad y bioética (Spanish Edition)
Sexo, sexualidad y bioética (Spanish Edition)
Sexo, sexualidad y bioética (Spanish Edition)
Sexo, sexualidad y bioética (Spanish Edition)
Sexo, sexualidad y bioética (Spanish Edition)
Sexo, sexualidad y bioética (Spanish Edition)
Sexo, sexualidad y bioética (Spanish Edition)
Sexo, sexualidad y bioética (Spanish Edition)

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