The old capital was Coimbra. Estremadura Estremadura , region, W Portugal, formerly a province, now divided between the provinces of Estremadura and Ribatejo, with a small part in Beira Litoral. The southernmost of the old provinces, Algarve Algarve , historic province, 1, sq mi 5, sq km , extreme S Portugal, coextensive with Faro dist. Vincent, the southwestern tip of Europe; citrus and almond groves and off-season vegetables thrive in the mild climate. In addition to the capital, other notable cities are Oporto Oporto , Port. It is Portugal's second largest city, after Lisbon, and an important Atlantic port.
The old capital of Beira, it is a market center with small industries but is known chiefly for its history and for the famous university, which was founded One of Portugal's most important ports, it handles wine, oranges, and cork. It is an agricultural trade center that produces electronics, textiles, and firearms. It is the commercial center of a fertile agricultural area.
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Cork and textiles are produced and iron, copper, and marble are mined. The southernmost town in Portugal, it is a seaport from which fish, fruit especially dried figs , wine, and cork are exported. Tourism now dominates the economy. The majority of the Portuguese people are Roman Catholics of Mediterranean stock; Portuguese is the official language. Wheat, corn, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes, and sugar beets are the main crops; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, and poultry are raised.
The country's fishing fleets bring in vital cargoes of sardines and tuna; fishing ports extend all the way from Cape St. Vincent in the south to the mouth of the Minho River on the N Spanish border. Portugal has food and beverage processing, oil refining, shipbuilding, and industries that produce textiles and footwear; wood pulp and paper; metals and metalworking; chemicals; rubber and plastic products; ceramics; electronics; and communications, transportation, and aerospace equipment. Low-grade iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, and other minerals are mined.
Most of the mines are in the northern mountains and in Beira. Portugal's forests provide a major portion of the world's supply of cork. The country's hydroelectric, wind, and solar resources are being extensively developed to replace imported fossil fuels. Tourism, long important, has increasingly become a mainstay of the economy. The country has enjoyed considerable economic progress since it became a member of the European Community now the European Union in , though in the early 21st cent. Clothing and footwear, machinery, chemicals, cork, paper products, and hides are major exports.
Machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, petroleum, textiles, and agricultural products are important imports. Spain, Germany, France, and Great Britain are the main trading partners.
Portugal is governed under the constitution of as amended. The president, who is the head of state, is elected by popular vote to a five-year term and is eligible for a second term. The premier, who is appointed by the president and must have support of the legislature, is the head of government. In addition, a Council of State acts as a consultative body to the president and consists of representatives from the political parties, a military defense board, and a constitutional tribunal.
The unicameral legislative body is the seat Assembly of the Republic, whose members are elected to four-year terms. The Socialist party and the Social Democratic party are the two major political parties. Administratively, Portugal is divided into 18 districts and two autonomous regions the Azores and Madeira Islands. There is little direct filiation between the Portuguese of today and the early tribes who inhabited this region, although the Portuguese long considered themselves descendants of the Lusitanians, a Celtic people who came to the area after 1, B.
The Lusitanians had their stronghold in the Serra da Estrela.
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Under Viriatus Viriatus , d. One of the survivors of the massacre of the Lusitani by the Roman praetor Servius Sulpicius Galba, Viriatus rose as a popular leader and persuaded his countrymen to resist Roman rule. He was a general under Marius but did not take part in Marius' proscriptions.
Sertorius was appointed governor of Farther Spain in 83 B. He later was summoned 80 B. As constituted c.
The province took its name from the Lusitani, a group of warlike tribes who, despite defeats, resisted Roman Other tribes, such as the Conii in Algarve, submitted more readily. Julius Caesar and Augustus completed the Roman conquest of the area, and the province of Lusitania thrived. Roman ways were adopted, and it is from Latin that the Portuguese language is derived. At the beginning of the 5th cent. Having settled in the region W of the Black Sea in the 3d cent. Present-day Algarve was part of the Byzantine Empire during the 6th and 7th cent.
In the Visigoths were defeated by the Moors Moors, nomadic people of the northern shores of Africa, originally the inhabitants of Mauretania. They were chiefly of Berber and Arab stock. In the 8th cent. Muslim culture and science had a great impact, especially in the south. Religious toleration was practiced, but a large minority converted to Islam. It was during the long period of the Christian reconquest that the Portuguese nation was created.
The kings of Asturias drove the Moors out of Galicia in the 8th cent.touch.groupdealjerom.dev3.develag.com
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Henry of Burgundy Henry of Burgundy, d. Henry's son Alfonso Henriques, wrested power from his mother and maintained the independence of his lands. Spain recognized Portugal's independence in and the Pope did so in Alfonso's long reign —85 was an important factor in Portugal's attainment of independence. Alfonso's successors were faced with the tasks of recapturing Alentejo and Algarve from the Moors and of rebuilding the areas devastated by the long wars.
There was conflict with other Portuguese claimants and between the kings and powerful nobles, and there was continual strife between the crown and the church over land and power. Until the late 13th cent. Sancho I Sancho I , c. He was associated in his father's government from c. Sancho undertook to restore and repeople the lands devastated in the wars against the Moors; thus he became known as Alfonso II —23 summoned the first Cortes council to advise the king.
By his marriage with Matilda, countess of Boulogne, he became count of Boulogne and thus was known as Alfonso o Bolonhez [Alfonso of Boulogne]. In Alfonso's reign the towns gained representation in the Cortes. The reconquest and resettlement aided local liberties, since forais charters guaranteeing municipal rights were granted in order to encourage settlement. As former serfs became settlers, serfdom declined 13th cent. Alfonso's son Diniz Diniz, Port.
Like his grandfather, Alfonso X of Castile, whose legal works he had translated into Portuguese, Diniz was a poet and a patron of literature. He also established a brilliant court and founded the university that became the Univ. Disgruntled by the favoritism his father showed toward Alfonso's illegitimate half-brothers, Alfonso rose in revolt in Although peace was arranged twice by his mother, St.
She went to Portugal as a lady in waiting to Constance of Castile, wife of the heir to the Portuguese throne, Dom Pedro His ambitions and his private life plunged the realm into disaster, although during his reign agricultural reform was achieved and Portuguese commercial power grew. Ferdinand's heiress was married to a Castilian prince, John I of Castile; after the death of Ferdinand, John claimed the throne.
He was the friend, counselor, and general of John I of Portugal. As a leader of the popular revolt against Castilian domination, he helped John to gain the throne and was the hero of the He was made grand master of the Knights of Aviz and exercised his influence in opposition to Leonor Teles, the queen of his half-brother, Ferdinand I.
At this time began the long alliance of Portugal with England. John founded the Aviz dynasty and his reign — commenced the most glorious period of Portuguese history. Portugal entered an era of colonial and maritime expansion. The war against the Moors was extended to Africa, and Ceuta Ceuta , city pop. An enclave in Morocco, Ceuta is administered directly by the Spanish government. Under the aegis of Prince Henry the Navigator Henry the Navigator, —, prince of Portugal, patron of exploration. Because he fought with extraordinary valor in the Portuguese conquest of Ceuta , he was created duke of Viseu by his father, John I, king of Portugal.
The Madeira Islands and the Azores were colonized. Duarte Duarte , —, king of Portugal —38 , eldest of the five sons of John I. He was a "philosopher-king," notable for his legal reforms and as the author of O leal conselheiro [the loyal counselor].
During his minority there was a struggle for the regency between the queen mother and Alfonso's uncle, Dom Pedro, duke of Coimbra. Alfonso's attempt to gain the Castilian throne ended in defeat. He was an astute politician and statesman and a patron of Renaissance art and learning. Bartholomew Diaz rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
Manuel's reign was most notable for the successful continuation of Portugal's overseas enterprises. In , as a precondition to his marriage with Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter, Manuel ordered the Jewish population to convert to Christianity or leave the country. His reign saw the Portuguese empire at its apogee. The great Asian possessions were extended by further conquest, and systematic colonization of Brazil was begun.
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The slender resources of Portugal itself were steadily weakened by depletion of manpower and the neglect of domestic agriculture and industry. Government policy and popular ambition concentrated on the rapid acquisition of riches through trade with East Asia, but foreign competition and piracy steadily decreased profits from this trade. Lisbon was for a time the center of the European spice trade, but, for geographical considerations and because of limited banking and commercial facilities, the center of the trade gradually shifted to N Europe.
He was under the regency first of his grandmother until and then of his uncle Henry a cardinal and later king until declared of age in His rash Moroccan campaign was a national catastrophe, and he was killed at Ksar el Kebir Ksar el Kebir , city pop.
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The name also appears as Alcazarquivir and Al Qasr al Kabir. Near the city on Aug.
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