For those in the movement, this means cultivating an attachment to Israel while fostering critical thinking. Yet he made a rare exception for 'Ocean,' confirming his attachment to it. The combination of emotional abuse and overt sexualization resulted in an attachment disorder. Whatever was the date or progress of the attachment , Southey was now engaged to be married.
The attachment for the home is very strong, and they take pride in large families which stick together. Believe in our attachment ; and we shall see you here now and then, and correspond with you when you are away. The rosette is affixed with a brass bolt, also for attachment , which must have extended through the front of the cap. His indifference was hard to bear; but so long as he assured her that he had formed no other attachment , she made no complaint. See also attachment disorder , attachment theory.
Taubner showed a moderating function of mentalization between psychopathic traits and aggression in juveniles Taubner et al. Borelli et al. Given these results, it seems that the period of adolescence is crucial for the development of mentalization and its associated emotion regulation, which in the long term affects certain aspects of the functioning of individuals, including the occurrence of psychopathology. Neuroimaging research also shows that adolescence can be a very critical moment for the development of the ability to mentalize Blakemore Without the ability to recognize and interpret mental states, the regulation of emotion may be insufficient or inappropriate, which may result in problems in functioning Allen et al.
It thus seems that this is a very difficult and demanding period for using this ability: on the one hand, adolescents have a great need to understand mental states and are sensitive to this topic Borelli et al. The studies cited above indeed confirm that the level of mentalization in adolescents is lower than in adults, at least in terms of mentalizing their relationship with parents.
This, in turn raises questions about their mentalization ability in peer relationships. The development of mentalization is closely related to the climate of the relationship between mother and child—that is, to attachment—and remains related to the development of emotion regulation. Relationships between mentalization and attachment are widely described in the literature, both from the perspective of development and in the context of psychopathology. Most of the space on the topic is devoted to the BPD model, in which insecure attachment contributes to distortions of mentalization, which in turn lead to the intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties characteristic of this personality disorder, which manifest mainly in the form of problems controlling emotion Fonagy and Bateman The probable formation mechanisms of this disorder lead from insecure attachment, deficits of mentalization, to ED and the symptoms of BPD Sharp et al.
Moreover, some authors have questioned the accuracy of attachment measurements made on adolescents using AAI, suggesting that it relates more to the ability to regulate emotions in the interpersonal context, rather than to the attachment itself Allen and Miga The literature also refers to the limitations that result from the use of a categorical approach to the measurement of attachment, recommending instead a dimensional approach Kuipers et al.
It thus seems important to verify the relationship between attachment and mentalization described in the literature using other, more diverse research methods.
Despite the studies cited above, there is still a need for further research into mentalization in adolescence; to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies that have investigated the relationships between mentalization, emotion regulation, and attachment to a romantic partner—that is, attachment that is probably still in the formative stage, but may have some importance for the functioning of the individual. As we have indicated, during adolescence, the structure of the attachment system undergoes changes, the relational needs of adolescents become more autonomous and more independent of primary attachment figures, and thus, with age, attachment to people other than their parents becomes increasingly important for their functioning Borelli et al.
It would seem to be crucial to answer the question of whether the precursors of romantic attachment may already have an impact on other psychological processes that are important for the functioning of the adolescent, especially in the relational and emotional areas. It also seems important to recognize those mechanisms that are important factors in the subsequent emergence and persistence of psychopathology, so as to be able to design therapeutic interventions oriented to ED, attachment, and mentalization as early as in adolescence.
It seems that the dynamic changes that occur in the transitional period between childhood and adulthood may be of importance for the functioning of adolescents in terms of their ability to regulate emotions. Research using methods other than AAI and dealing with attachment to romantic partners, and not to parents, can be expected to provide important data on the relationship between ED, mentalization, and attachment.
The main goal of the current study is to verify the relationships between ED, mentalization, and romantic attachment in late adolescent girls. We hypothesize that: a a high level of ED is associated with higher levels of attachment avoidance and anxiety, and that individuals with high levels of anxiety manifest a different pattern of ED than those with high levels of avoidance; b a high level of ED is associated with lower levels of mentalization; c a high level of mentalization is associated with lower levels of attachment avoidance and anxiety; and d the level of mentalization, attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety explain the level of ED.
Most of the reported studies have concerned only groups of adults and have used one method AAI to measure attachment and mentalization. The aim of our study was to confirm these relationships in a group of adolescents using more diverse methods. This will allow processes to be described as they form, which can result in some relevant information on the development of specific functions, which is important from the point of view of the mechanisms responsible for the formation of psychopathology.
One hundred and twenty adolescent girls participated in the study. The study was conducted on a group homogeneous in gender, as many authors have indicated differences in mentalization and emotion regulation in relation to sex, especially during adolescence Rutherford et al. It is clear that the results must be separately verified in a group of boys. Moreover, the age of our sample late adolescence was chosen because it is more likely to capture the moment when the importance of attachment to parents reduces in favor of attachment to a romantic partner.
The period of late adolescence is a period in which individuals have already had the first experiences of romantic relationships. Brennan et al.
It consists of 36 items. The anxiety dimension refers to a chronic fear that the attachment figure will not be available in times of need.
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It is associated with hyperactivating strategies involving permanent intense attempts to obtain support, care, and affection from the attachment figure. The avoidance dimension refers to feelings of mistrust, emotional distance, and the need for independence from the attachment figure. It is associated with deactivating strategies that involve the suppression and avoidance of thoughts and emotions related to attachment.see
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Individuals who score low on the anxiety and avoidance dimension are those described as having secure attachment. The ECR has been successfully used in studies of adolescents Nilsson et al. In this study, a Polish adaptation of the questionnaire was used adapted by Rajewska-Rynkowska , unpublished manuscript. Gratz and Roemer is a self-reported measure of emotion dysregulation that consists of 36 items.
The results are shown on five subscales: nonacceptance of emotional responses Nonacceptance , difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior Goals , impulse control difficulties Impulse , limited access to emotion-regulation strategies Strategies , and lack of emotional clarity Clarity. Based on the data available in the literature, the Lack of emotional awareness scale was excluded, due to the fact that this scale demonstrates much weaker latent factor intercorrelations Bardeen et al.
Beaulieu-Pelletier et al. In order to evoke emotional arousal, the participants were primed with the 3BM card from the Thematic Apperception Test Murray They were then asked to write down a story that came to mind in response to the image. The score for each subscale reflects the scores for each mental state, and the total MST score is obtained from an equation that uses weights to reproduce the reflective continuum. The MST has good reliability coefficients: 0. The data were analyzed using the statistical package SPSS Spearman correlations were run to examine the bivariate relations between the main variables: attachment dimensions, mentalization, and emotion dysregulation.
That is, the higher the level of attachment anxiety, the greater the problems in emotional regulation, measured in multiple dimensions. In general, the primitive modes of mentalizing are associated with high levels of emotion dysregulation. On the other hand, mentalization shows a weak relationship with attachment scales. Individuals with secure attachment used this mode of mentalizing to a lesser extent than did insecure individuals. The differences in other scales were not statistically significant.
Social sharing of emotions
Summary of linear regression analysis for attachment anxiety and mentalization as predictors of emotion dysregulation. Regression analysis was performed: the predictors were mentalization and attachment anxiety, and the dependent variable was emotion dysregulation. The standardized beta coefficient indicates that the lower the level of mentalization and the higher the level of anxiety towards a romantic partner, the higher the level of ED in girls during late adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine whether associations could be observed between ED, mentalization, and romantic attachment in adolescent sample, as they have been in adults.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which all three of these variables have been investigated together in a group of adolescents. Additionally, our aim was to describe the role played by the newly forming attachment to a romantic partner in the functioning of girls in late adolescence.
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So far, most models have referred to the attachment to parents, but it can be assumed that the period of late adolescence, as a transitional period, is characterized by specific dynamics in which the ongoing functioning of the adolescent may also be affected by a romantic attachment. Moreover, this is the first study on adolescents to employ the Mental States Task, which is considered a good tool for measuring various dimensions of mentalization in situations of emotional arousal. Despite the increasing amount of research, we still have few reports on the mentalization of adolescents, especially among those not suffering from mental disorders.
The present study fills this research gap in the reports on the dynamics of the relationship between ED, mentalization, and attachment. The results of the research suggest that mentalization and attachment anxiety, though not attachment avoidance, influence the level of emotion dysregulation in the investigated group of girls. The study thus confirms a possible mechanism for the development of psychopathology, and especially of personality pathology: insecure attachment, together with a reduced level of mentalization, leads to worse functioning in the regulation of emotions.
This pattern of relationships between these variables has been observed in adolescents with borderline traits Sharp et al. According to our hypothesis, a high level of anxiety in attachment to a romantic partner is a predictor of a high level of emotion dysregulation. Anxious individuals experiencing negative emotions have difficulty focusing on achieving their goals and have limited access to the strategy of emotion regulation. Such anxiety is associated with a lack of conviction in the possibilities of transforming emotional reactions during difficult emotional situations.
Anxious individuals also have a tendency to not accept their emotional reactions—that is, they have difficulties recognizing the negative emotions associated with difficult occurrences. This may result in a tendency to react with secondary negative emotions in difficult situations. People with high levels of attachment anxiety may also experience problems controlling their impulses and behavior in emotionally difficult times, as well as reduced recognition and awareness of their own emotions.
Intergroup comparisons show that people with insecure, fearful—avoidant attachment differ significantly from the secure group in terms of ability to regulate their emotions. The former generally exhibit higher levels of emotion dysregulation, especially in terms of their inability to engage in purposeful tasks, as well as reduced access to emotional regulation strategies and low levels of awareness and recognition of their own emotions. Analysis shows, however, that the differences observed between the two groups are rather due to the high level of anxiety than the high level of avoidance or any combination of these factors.
This is confirmed by the results of the regression analysis. This pattern of coefficients indicates that the more anxious the attachment, the higher the level of emotion dysregulation, although avoidance is unrelated to the dependent variable.
In line with the suggestion of Fraley regarding attachment types, this result suggests that highly preoccupied and fearful people score higher on the ED than highly secure and dismissing people. Similar relationships have been indicated by studies of Brenning et al. Additionally, as other research has shown Brenning and Braet , for attachment avoidance, the associations with ED strategies seem to depend on the specific type of emotion involved, whereas attachment anxiety is related to dysregulation irrespective of the type of emotions.
We do not specify the type of emotion in our study, so it may be a reason why attachment anxiety had a greater association with ED than did attachment avoidance. We were, to some extent, able to confirm the hypothesis that higher levels of emotion dysregulation are associated with lower levels of mentalization.
Two aspects of emotion dysregulation show relationships with mentalization in particular: nonacceptance of emotional responses and lack of emotional clarity. High levels of these indicators of emotion dysregulation are associated with the use of more primitive styles of mentalization: low defensive level, which is characterized by an inability to make sense of experience and by the use of splitting, acting out, etc. Nonacceptance of emotional responses also shows correlations with the lowest style of mentalization, concrete thinking, which is characterized by a low level of representation of experience and a lack of comprehensive emotional content and of symbolic and abstract relations.
On the basis of the available literature on the subject, it is difficult to conclude that a causal relationship holds between mentalization and ED. On one hand, ED makes mentalization difficult Kuipers et al. This is evidenced by the negative association found between mentalizing capacity and alexithymia Demers and Koven In addition, mentalization presupposes a symbolic representation of affective states that allows difficult emotions to be dealt with on the intrapsychic level, instead of, as frequently happens, through maladaptive and impulsive acting out.
Related Attachement (EMOTIONS) (French Edition)
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